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refractory material shows the characteristic phenomena like

  • refractory material shows the characteristic

    refractory material shows the characteristic phenomena like temperature applications Nacre-like ceramic refractories for high temperature ... 2018-4-1 · A nacre-like ceramic containing alumina platelets separated by aluminium borate (9Al 2 O 3 ·2B 2 O 3) as refractory secondary phase was designed to obtain ceramic composites with enhanced ...

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  • Modelling of high-chromia refractory spalling in

    2008-12-1 · One of the most severe refractory degradation mechanisms is spalling, which can occur by either volume-expansion phenomena (compressive stresses) or by volume-shrinkage phenomena (tensile stresses). A volume-shrinkage model is benchmarked to high-chromia refractory material properties and performance under gasifier operating conditions.

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  • Selection of Proper Refractory Materials for Energy

    2012-1-6 · Refractory lining of an aluminum melting and holding furnace are engineered with a primary design objective to keep the furnace condition stable throughout the life of the furnace. In consideration of energy saving, ideally all the heat added to the furnace should be used to heat the load or stock but in practice, a lot of heat is lost in several ways.

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  • Dissolution of refractories for gasification process of ...

    2012-3-1 · Highlights MgAl 2 O 4 and Al 2 O 3 refractories were designed for petroleum coke gasification process in steel industry. Refractories were exposed to petroleum coke ashes and exhibited dissolution due to molten slag penetration. Microstructural analysis revealed formation of spinel’s type (Ni 2+, Fe 2+ and Mg 2+)IV (Al 3+, Fe 3+)VI 2 O 4. Hibonite and gehlenite phases were also observed ...

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  • Effects of randomization of characteristic times on

    2020-8-7 · We believe that this can be remedied by using a range of refractory times like t refr = 9–10, reducing the difference to more reasonable values and we will still be able to observe the same kind of phenomena. We also plan to generalize the model to an excitation condition that is distance dependent to see if new phenomena are observed.

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  • Damage Pattern Recognition and Feature Extraction

    An adequate handling in refractory material manufacturing is a key to successful production of the refractory eventually leading to successful practice in iron and steel making processes. In this view point, it is quite important to understand damage pattern during manufacturing process which helps an appropriate operation for refractory producers.

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  • Physical and Technological Aspects of Processing High ...

    2021-3-21 · refractory elements, in the photospheres of post-AGB stars, that correlates with the condensation temperature of an element (Giridhar et al. 2000). In order to get a depleted photosphere, the stellar radiation pressure on circumstellar material separates dust grains (containing refractory elements) from the volatile-

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  • Multiwavelength Observations of the RV Tauri Variable ...

    Corrosion is one of the most common wear mechanisms of refractories. Corrosive attacks lead to chemical and microstructural changes. Hot corrosion compromises chemical and/or physical interactions. Thus, the process is complex and not yet fully understood. Currently, corrosion is investigated post mortem by means of X-ray diffraction or scanning electron microscopy.

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  • Correlation of Thermo-Elastic Material and Corrosion ...

    Nozzle clogging in continuous casting of steel originates by the adherence of alumina particles and other oxides, precipitated during the liquid steel deoxidation, on the refractory material’s surface. Hence, these particles’ nucleation and growth rates in supersaturated melts are analyzed considering, specifically, the role of the interfacial tensions between alumina, silica, and other ...

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  • An Index of Refractory Organics - EPA

    ----- ABSTRACT Refractory waterborne organics resist biodegradation, accumulate in the environment and can inhibit life forms. This research develops laboratory techniques for, and interpretations of, a Refractory Index (R.I.) to assess quantitatively the persistency of refractory organics and uses the R.I. determination to evaluate some 38 industrial, natural and combined or- ganics.

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  • Combustion joining of refractory materials:

    Simultaneously, carbon from the composite material is dissolved into the liquid-metal layer, leading to the formation of a refractory phase (TiC) with a much higher viscosity than the metal. Because the characteristic squeezing rate is much higher than the characteristic diffusion time, the thickness of the final joining layer is essentially ...

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  • REFRACTORIES AND REFRACTORY CEMENTS FOR THE

    ABSTRACT Development in refractory linings for the various furnaces encountered in the nonferrous foundry industry is outlined, and figures given showing the present trend. These include open‐flame, crucible, and electric furnaces. The open‐flame furnaces formerly used firebrick linings, but silicon‐carbide and high alumina refractories are coming into use. The crucible furnace linings ...

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  • Analysis and Prediction of Corrosion of Refractory ...

    As a kind of renewable resource, biomass has been used more and more widely, but the potassium contained in biomass can cause corrosion of the refractory. For a better understanding of corrosion thermodynamic mechanisms, the five components of common refractory materials (magnesium chrome spinel MgO·Cr2O3, magnesium aluminum spinel MgO·Al2O3, Al2O3, MgO, and Cr2O3) with …

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  • Development and exploration of refractory high

    2018-10-1 · Open literature publications, in the period from 2010 to the end of January 2018, on refractory high entropy alloys (RHEAs) and refractory complex concentrated alloys (RCCAs) are reviewed. While RHEAs, by original definition, are alloys consisting of five or more principal elements with the concentration of each of these elements between 5 and 35 at.%, RCCAs can contain three or …

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  • Refractory disease | Article about Refractory disease

    disease, impairment of the normal state or functioning of the body as a whole or of any of its parts. Some diseases are acute, producing severe symptoms that terminate after a short time, e.g., pneumonia; others are chronic disorders, e.g., arthritis, that last a long time; and still others return periodically and are termed recurrent, e.g., malaria.

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  • RU2324670C2 - Fused moulded refractory material

    FIELD: chemistry. SUBSTANCE: scope of invention covers fused moulded refractory material intended for the purpose where the mentioned material contacts with melted glass, particularly, for use in edge zones of glass-melting furnace at temperatures below 1150°C. The refractory material contains, % w/w: more than 85% ZrO 2 , 2-8 SiO 2 , 0.12-1 Na 2 O, 0.2-2 Al 2 O 3 , 0.5≤Y 2 O 3 +CaO≤2.6 ...

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  • Development and exploration of refractory high

    2018-6-8 · II. TAXONOMY AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS. The first two RCCAs, MoNbTaW and MoNbTaVW, were reported in 2010 by Senkov et al. Reference Senkov, Wilks, Miracle, Chuang and Liaw 6 and in the following years, the number of newly reported RCCAs has increased steadily [].By the end of January 2018, 151 new compositions were described in the open literature, among which 25 are 4 …

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  • Analysis and Modilization of Electric Arc Model for High ...

    2017-11-26 · is produced by heating the material below the evaporation temperature (thermionic emission). The current densities obtained with this type of cathodes are around 104A/cm2. The use of refractory materials in combination with good conductors, such as silver or copper, shows reduced erosion characteristic when the arc happens.

    Get Price
  • An Index of Refractory Organics - EPA

    ----- ABSTRACT Refractory waterborne organics resist biodegradation, accumulate in the environment and can inhibit life forms. This research develops laboratory techniques for, and interpretations of, a Refractory Index (R.I.) to assess quantitatively the persistency of refractory organics and uses the R.I. determination to evaluate some 38 industrial, natural and combined or- ganics.

    Get Price
  • Some Features of Growing Single Crystals of

    2015-5-6 · Based on structural features of EBFZM set-up, we would like to note some highlights that should be considered when growing bicrystals of pure refractory metals: (1) the stability and radial uniformity of the power supplied by the electron gun; (2) the co-axiality of the growing bicrystal and electron gun (coincidence of thermal and geometric ...

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  • OPERATIONS STRATEGIES FOR VERTICAL SHAFT LIME

    2012-3-12 · chemical products like lime, the vertical shaft kilns offers a good investment options. This is because of the ... This kiln can be described as an upright heavy steel cylinder lined with refractory material. ... Figure 1 shows a schematic diagram of a shaft kiln. The challenge of operating a shaft kiln to

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  • Development and exploration of refractory high

    2018-10-1 · Open literature publications, in the period from 2010 to the end of January 2018, on refractory high entropy alloys (RHEAs) and refractory complex concentrated alloys (RCCAs) are reviewed. While RHEAs, by original definition, are alloys consisting of five or more principal elements with the concentration of each of these elements between 5 and 35 at.%, RCCAs can contain three or …

    Get Price
  • The Physical Chemistry of Steel Deoxidation and

    Nozzle clogging in continuous casting of steel originates by the adherence of alumina particles and other oxides, precipitated during the liquid steel deoxidation, on the refractory material’s surface. Hence, these particles’ nucleation and growth rates in supersaturated melts are analyzed considering, specifically, the role of the interfacial tensions between alumina, silica, and other ...

    Get Price
  • Heating events in the nascent solar system recorded

    Equilibrium condensation of solar gas is often invoked to explain the abundance of refractory elements in planets and meteorites. This is partly motivated, by the observation that the depletions in both the least and most refractory rare earth elements (REEs) in meteoritic group II calcium-aluminum–rich inclusions (CAIs) can be reproduced by thermodynamic models of solar nebula condensation ...

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  • The Epileptor Model: A Systematic Mathematical

    One characteristic of epilepsy is the variety of mechanisms leading to the epileptic state, which are still largely unknown. Refractory status epilepticus (RSE) and depolarization block (DB) are other pathological brain activities linked to epilepsy, whose patterns are different and whose mechanisms remain poorly understood. In epileptogenic network modeling, the Epileptor is a generic ...

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  • Structural and optical characterization of Cr2O3 ...

    2014-2-25 · The structural, optical and dielectric properties of as-grown Cr 2 O 3 nanostructures are demonstrated in this paper. FTIR spectroscopy, revealed the characteristic peaks of Cr–O bond stretching vibrations. Energy band gap (3.2 eV) of the nanostructures has been determined using the results of UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer. The dielectric properties of the material were checked in …

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  • Basic Properties of Cardiac Muscle (With Diagram) |

    2 天前 · ADVERTISEMENTS: The properties present in other muscle are also shown by the cardiac muscle. But it shows certain special features. 1. Rhythmicity: One of the main characteristic features of the cardiac muscle is that it can initiate its own impulse rhythmical­ly. This inherent rhythmical property is present throughout the cardiac muscle as evident from the […]

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  • Stress-strain curve | Rime's Wiki

    The slope angle of this straight line can be used to deduce how stiff the material is. The steeper this line rises the stiffer the material. If the graph is shallower, the material is elastic. hard soft The higher the limit at which the material begins to flow the harder the material is. …

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  • An Index of Refractory Organics - EPA

    ----- ABSTRACT Refractory waterborne organics resist biodegradation, accumulate in the environment and can inhibit life forms. This research develops laboratory techniques for, and interpretations of, a Refractory Index (R.I.) to assess quantitatively the persistency of refractory organics and uses the R.I. determination to evaluate some 38 industrial, natural and combined or- ganics.

    Get Price
  • Combustion joining of refractory materials:

    Simultaneously, carbon from the composite material is dissolved into the liquid-metal layer, leading to the formation of a refractory phase (TiC) with a much higher viscosity than the metal. Because the characteristic squeezing rate is much higher than the characteristic diffusion time, the thickness of the final joining layer is essentially ...

    Get Price
  • Some Features of Growing Single Crystals of

    2015-5-6 · Based on structural features of EBFZM set-up, we would like to note some highlights that should be considered when growing bicrystals of pure refractory metals: (1) the stability and radial uniformity of the power supplied by the electron gun; (2) the co-axiality of the growing bicrystal and electron gun (coincidence of thermal and geometric ...

    Get Price
  • REFRACTORIES AND REFRACTORY CEMENTS FOR THE

    ABSTRACT Development in refractory linings for the various furnaces encountered in the nonferrous foundry industry is outlined, and figures given showing the present trend. These include open‐flame, crucible, and electric furnaces. The open‐flame furnaces formerly used firebrick linings, but silicon‐carbide and high alumina refractories are coming into use. The crucible furnace linings ...

    Get Price
  • Damage Detection of Refractory Based on Principle ...

    The industrial refractory tested in the study is composed of magnesia aggregates, carbon binder (phenolic resin and/or pitch), and other components. Figure 1 shows the microstructure of such a refractory without damage. The magnesia aggregates are …

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  • Self flowing refractory castables : study of the

    Refractories are enabling materials in that their primary function is to facilitate the production of other materials such as metals, glasses, petrochemicals, and cements. They have enabled the utilization of heat to make materials since the Bronze Age. Although, in recent years, a number of studies concerning the many complex variables that determine the rheologic, hydraulic and ceramic ...

    Get Price
  • Development and exploration of refractory high

    2018-6-8 · II. TAXONOMY AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS. The first two RCCAs, MoNbTaW and MoNbTaVW, were reported in 2010 by Senkov et al. Reference Senkov, Wilks, Miracle, Chuang and Liaw 6 and in the following years, the number of newly reported RCCAs has increased steadily [].By the end of January 2018, 151 new compositions were described in the open literature, among which 25 are 4 …

    Get Price
  • (PDF) Abrasive and Fretting Wear Resistance of

    Abrasive and Fretting Wear Resistance of Refractory Cobalt Alloy Specimens Manufactured by the Method of Selective Laser Melting. ... Fretting wear studies on diamond-like carbon coated Ti–6Al–4V. By Ganesh Sundara Raman. INTRODUCTION TO TRIBOLOGY. By Jose Manuel Lopez Mendez. Fretting wear of Ti(C x N y ) PVD coatings under variable ...

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  • Articles | International Journal of GEOMATE

    2021-5-31 · The shear strength of MSWIBA is like natural sand. The resilient modulus decreased with the increase of deviator stress in the case of R90 sample and increased with the increase of deviator stress in the case of R95. The numerical method results also show that MSWIBA material can be used as construction material such as roadbed and foundation ...

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  • Gas Discharge Tubes - Introduction - G3YNH

    2020-11-26 · Discharge tube: current vs. voltage characteristic. Shown below is a 'typical' current vs. voltage characteristic for a gas discharge tube. The graph is only typical however in the sense that all tubes exhibit the conduction behaviour shown, but the corresponding voltages and currents, and the relative lengths of the various regions, are highly variable.

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  • REFRACTORIES AND REFRACTORY CEMENTS FOR THE

    ABSTRACT Development in refractory linings for the various furnaces encountered in the nonferrous foundry industry is outlined, and figures given showing the present trend. These include open‐flame, crucible, and electric furnaces. The open‐flame furnaces formerly used firebrick linings, but silicon‐carbide and high alumina refractories are coming into use. The crucible furnace linings ...

    Get Price
  • OSA | Temperature stability of thin film refractory ...

    Although the refractory properties of Ti, W, and Mo are well reported in the case of bulk materials, Fig. 3 shows the optical properties of thin-film samples are subject to significant variations at relatively low temperatures, with metallic behaviour being lost altogether after annealing in air at 500° C. In the case of Mo this can simply be ...

    Get Price
  • Self flowing refractory castables : study of the

    Refractories are enabling materials in that their primary function is to facilitate the production of other materials such as metals, glasses, petrochemicals, and cements. They have enabled the utilization of heat to make materials since the Bronze Age. Although, in recent years, a number of studies concerning the many complex variables that determine the rheologic, hydraulic and ceramic ...

    Get Price
  • Analysis and Modilization of Electric Arc Model for High ...

    2017-11-26 · is produced by heating the material below the evaporation temperature (thermionic emission). The current densities obtained with this type of cathodes are around 104A/cm2. The use of refractory materials in combination with good conductors, such as silver or copper, shows reduced erosion characteristic when the arc happens.

    Get Price
  • Development of o refractory mold based on chamotte ...

    1) Chemical and mineralogical composition: The silico-aluminous composition of the refractory material was about 90 %, and the major impurities were K 2 O, Fe 2 O 3 and TiO 2 . The AhO 3 content (32 %) corresponds to a brick fabricated from refractory clay, whose softening temperature hovers around 1600 …

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  • (PDF) Abrasive and Fretting Wear Resistance of

    Abrasive and Fretting Wear Resistance of Refractory Cobalt Alloy Specimens Manufactured by the Method of Selective Laser Melting. ... Fretting wear studies on diamond-like carbon coated Ti–6Al–4V. By Ganesh Sundara Raman. INTRODUCTION TO TRIBOLOGY. By Jose Manuel Lopez Mendez. Fretting wear of Ti(C x N y ) PVD coatings under variable ...

    Get Price
  • Materials Science News - Elsevier

    2017-4-6 · Here, we would like to discuss about the stability of the oxides calculated by thermodynamics. Fig. 6(a) shows the Ellingham diagram for NiO, MoO2 and WO2 [7]. MoO2 and WO2 are more advantageous in energy than MoO3 and WO3 when they are on their metal surfaces in a vacuum as shown in Fig. 6(b) and (c).

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  • Electrical Conductivity of Metals - ThoughtCo.com

    2021-5-26 · The material has so-called charge-density wave (CDW) phases where the crystal distorts like a wave in response to temperature and light intensity. These structural changes have a profound effect on the material’s electronic properties including resistivity, which enables the material to demonstrate a metal-to-insulator transition.

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  • Grain boundary engineering: historical perspective

    2020-3-2 · Electrical conductivity in metals is a result of the movement of electrically charged particles. The atoms of metal elements are characterized by the presence of valence electrons, which are electrons in the outer shell of an atom that are free to move about.

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  • OSA | Temperature stability of thin film refractory ...

    Although the refractory properties of Ti, W, and Mo are well reported in the case of bulk materials, Fig. 3 shows the optical properties of thin-film samples are subject to significant variations at relatively low temperatures, with metallic behaviour being lost altogether after annealing in air at 500° C. In the case of Mo this can simply be ...

    Get Price
  • Roadmap on metasurfaces - IOPscience

    2017-4-6 · Here, we would like to discuss about the stability of the oxides calculated by thermodynamics. Fig. 6(a) shows the Ellingham diagram for NiO, MoO2 and WO2 [7]. MoO2 and WO2 are more advantageous in energy than MoO3 and WO3 when they are on their metal surfaces in a vacuum as shown in Fig. 6(b) and (c).

    Get Price
  • Materials Science News - Elsevier

    2019-7-1 · The optical properties of a material are heavily dependent on different growth conditions and crystal properties , which necessitates further optimization for the best plasmonic response. Material research is needed to explore possible refractory materials that would have comparable optical properties to …

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  • ISIJ International - JST

    2021-5-26 · The material has so-called charge-density wave (CDW) phases where the crystal distorts like a wave in response to temperature and light intensity. These structural changes have a profound effect on the material’s electronic properties including resistivity, which enables the material to demonstrate a metal-to-insulator transition.

    Get Price
  • Mathematical Modeling of Flow and Heat Transfer

    2020-9-25 · This article focuses on CaF 2 and MgO, since the CaF 2 is a common additive material in the ladle treatment and high MgO content means that the ladle refractory lining is dissolving into the slag. The analysis has been carried out by comparing emission line ratios to the XRF analyzed ratios of CaF 2 /MgO and MnO/MgO, respectively.

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  • Osmosis, Water Channels, and the Regulation of Cell

    2010-6-1 · Beerkens, 5 in addition to reviewing furnace modeling literature, described key phenomena involved in glass melting and auxiliary processes (e.g., evaporation from glass melt surface, refractory corrosion) and summarized transport equations governing flow and heat transfer phenomena in the glass melt. One of the most important areas highlighted ...

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  • Pathology of asthma

    In this section, we examine two types of transport phenomena that, at first glance, may seem unrelated: the regulation of cell volume in both plant and animal cells, and the bulk flow of water (the movement of water containing dissolved solutes) across one or more layers of cells. In humans, for example, water moves from the blood filtrate that will form urine across a layer of epithelial ...

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  • Strong, tough and stiff bioinspired ceramics from

    2013-9-10 · INTRODUCTION. Asthma is characterized by the action of airway leading to reversible airflow obstruction in association with airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and airway inflammation (Holgate, 2012).The disease is affecting more than 300 million persons all over the world, with approximately 250,000 annual deaths (Bousquet et al., 2007).In the last couple of decades, as the …

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  • Tactile illusions - Scholarpedia

    2014-3-23 · The nacre-like alumina shows relatively high organization of the platelets. b,e, Local stacking of platelets. A liquid-phase film is present even when the platelets are close, mimicking the ...

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